There is a lot of information on colors that is on the Internet. To learn the basics of how colors are displayed on computers and mobile devices, from a software perspective, consider looking at the section at w3schools on Colors Tutorial.
Colors are displayed combining RED, GREEN, and BLUE light. RGB stands for Red, Green, Blue. How much of each color is specified with a number between zero and 255 for each of the three colors. 256 cubed gives you 16,777,216 different color possibilities. Most modern monitors are capable of displaying at least 16384 different colors.
Here is a good website: rgb.to that explores color combinations and converts from RGB to other ways of specifying colour and back again. It also shows you the Pantone colors.
Here is what Wikipedia says about additive color: “Additive color is color created by mixing a number of different light colors, with shades of red, green, and blue being the most common primary colors used in additive color system. Additive color is in contrast to subtractive color, in which colors are created by subtracting (absorbing) parts of the spectrum of light present in ordinary white light, by means of colored pigments or dyes, such as those in paints, inks, and the three dye layers in typical color photographs on film.”
Here is what Wikipedia says about Pantone: “Pantone Inc. is a corporation headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey. The company is best known for its Pantone Matching System (PMS), a proprietary color space used in a variety of industries, primarily printing, though sometimes in the manufacture of colored paint, fabric, and plastics.”
To see what many colors of text looks like on a particular colour background, go to w3schools and go to their Color Tutorial and click color groups on the left menu. choose a color and click on the colour name or hex value.
Solarized Color Palette
Solarized is a sixteen color palette (eight monotones, eight accent colors) designed for use with terminal and GUI applications.