What is a directory service? defines it this way: “A directory service is a customizable information store that functions as a single point from which users can locate resources and services distributed throughout the network. This customizable information store also gives administrators a single point for managing its objects […]

Directory Service

What is network address translation (NAT)? Wikipedia says: “NAT is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in Internet Protocol (IP) datagram packet headers while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.” Wikipedia goes on later to say: “In more […]

Network Address Translation (NAT)

What is machine to machine? Wikipedia says: “Machine to machine refers to direct communication between devices using any communications channel, including wired and wireless. Machine to machine communication can include industrial instrumentation, enabling a sensor or meter to communicate the data it records (such as temperature, inventory level, etc.) to […]

Machine to Machine

You can build your VMs on one computer and move them to another computer. You don’t need to rebuild your VMs. You might have spent some time setting up your server in a VM, setting up the network and doing all of the necessary configuration, so you don’t want to […]

Move a VirtualBox VM

VirtualBox is a cross-platform virtualization application. VirtualBox it installs on your existing Intel or AMD-based computers, whether they are running Windows, Mac, Linux or Solaris operating systems. Secondly, it extends the capabilities of your existing computer so that it can run multiple operating systems (inside multiple virtual machines) at the […]

Oracle VM VirtualBox

Defining the types of computer networks is not an easy task. Networks can range from two computers connected together sharing a few resources (files or printers for example) up to millions of computers spanning the globe. The purpose of this post is to introduce the reader to a high-level overview […]

Computer Network Types

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Binary and Decimal Numbers

Wikipedia says: “The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to their underlying internal structure and technology.” Click on the link below to view my PDF document. OSIRefModel PDF The PDF file […]

OSI Reference Model

In a previous post called Hyper-V, virtualization was defined and briefly discussed. Virtualization is the process of running powerful software on a computer to create a complete environment that imitates all of the hardware you’d have on a real computer. In this virtual environment we can install and run an […]


What is cryptography? Wikipedia says: “Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; various aspects in information […]