Although there are several types of media, this discussion focuses on only four. The main types of advertising medium are newspapers, direct mail, radio, television, yellow pages, magazines, the Internet, outdoor and other types of publications. Newspapers come in several forms such as daily, community and weekly. Magazines can be directed at consumers or businesses (trade publications).


Advantages of
Disadvantages of Newspapers
geographically selective and flexible limited color availability and quality
broad reach short life span, often hasty reading
readership not seasonal cluttered pages
quick response to advertisements little demographic selectivity
advertising permanence little secondary readership


Dailies are newspapers that are published at least five days a week.

Direct Mail

Advantages of Direct Mail

Disadvantages of Direct Mail

saturation of area

high cost per person

advertising permanence

delivery delays

able to target market

no editorial support

flexible in format and style

consumer resistance

high control over circulation and quality

difficulty obtaining mailing list


Before you may run a radio ad, you must first produce the ad. Once the ad is produced, you may run it as much as you wish. That same ad will be run each time. You will never again need to produce another radio ad. There is a lead-time to produce the radio ad. It’s one week. For example, if it is the start of week 15 and you produce a radio ad, that ad cannot be run until week 16
when it becomes available. There are four types of broadcast radio ad contracts. Two are peak time and two are off peak time.
Two are regional ads and two are local station ads.

Advantages of

Disadvantages of

relatively low cost

no visual display


short life of advertisement

short notice to schedule ad

cluttered medium

no seasonal change in audience

frequently in the background and
people often ignore the message

very portable


People Using Radio (PUR)
People using radio is the percentage of all people within a defined demographic group listening to radio at a particular time,
where the particular time is broken down to small units of time, such as 15-minute intervals.
Radio Dayparts
Radio dayparts are standard time periods used to plan and buy media. The morning drive is from 6
A.M. to 10 A.M. Daytime is from
10 A.M. to 4 P.M. The afternoon drive is from 4 P.M. to 7 P.M. The evening is from 7 P.M. to midnight. Overnight is from
midnight to 6 A.M. Radio prime time is the morning and afternoon drives.
High Spotting
High spotting is the technique of placing radio commercials in specific hour segments rather than in the broader daypart segments. An advertiser may wish to
high spot by requesting that the commercial be aired between 7 A.M. and 8 A.M. instead of
having the commercial simply rotate throughout the morning drive.


In the simulator, before you may run a television ad, you must first produce the ad. Once the ad is produced, you may run it as much as
you wish. That same ad will be run each time. You will never again need to produce another television ad. There is a lead-time to produce the television ad.

Advantages of

Disadvantages of

broad reach

high cost

frequent messages

cluttered media

demonstration potential

lower viewing in summer

sight and hearing appealed to

short life of message

carryover of entertainment

long time to prepare

In-Program An in-program TV commercial is one that appears within a TV program as opposed to between TV programs.
Holding Power
The ability of a TV program or a specific episode of that program to retain the audience throughout the length of its telecast.
Answer Print
This is an nearly finished print of a television commercial that contains all of the optical effects, titles and so on but is not yet ready
for airing until it has been reviewed for its colour and quality, corrected and then approved for airing.

Radio and Television
There are several advertising terms that apply to both radio and TV, due to the nature of the media.
Run of Station (ROS)
The scheduling of commercials day and night at the discretion of the station or
network, as opposed to the media buyer negotiating for specific time periods or
programs. Advertisers use ROS to save money.
The scheduling of radio or TV commercials at different times of the day each day that it is broadcast within the specific time periods specified. If an advertiser purchases one commercial broadcast during the morning drive for Monday to Friday where the commercial is
broadcast at different times each day, they are in a rotation.
The term spot is often used as slang to mean a radio or TV commercial. Spot can also mean the purchase of radio or TV time on a
market-by-market basis as opposed to a network (national) basis.

Bonus Spot
A commercial given to an advertiser by a media vehicle free of charge to make up for undelivered audience or as an inducement to buy additional spots.
Block Programming
The scheduling of radio or TV programs within a two-to four-hour period of time that all have similar appeal and are directed at similar demographic groups. People will be more likely to continue to watch or listen to a program that follows the one they just watched or listen to if it is similar.
Coverage Area
The geographic are reached by a radio or TV station’s signal.
Fringe Area
The outermost geographic reach of a radio or TV station’s signal.

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